What is Balance Sheet?

A balance sheet is a financial record design to precisely express how much company worth, known as book value. It achieve this record by calculating and listing out all the assets and liabilities of the company and owners equity of a specific date, also known as the reporting. Generally, a balance sheet designs and submit every three months or monthly. It is depending on the reporting prevalence as decided through law or company.

Carlos and Company What is Balance Sheet
Carlos and Company What is Balance Sheet

Objectives of Balance sheets.

A specific balance sheet summarizes a business at a given time. It pictures a company’s financial position as split into assets, liabilities, and equity. It has two different objectives depending on the review of the audience. When a balance sheet checks internally through a company leader, essential stakeholder, or any employee, it creates to determine whether a company is growing or failing.

Based on this data, an internal audience can turn their methods and policies: into folding down on successes, correcting failures, and shifting towards fresh opportunities. When a balance sheet examine externally through a company’s person. It creates to determine what resources are available to a company and how to finance them. Based on this data, possible investors can determine whether it would be intelligent to fund a company.

Also, it is the possibility to support the data in a balance sheet to figure out the essential metrics like liquidity, debt-to-equity ratio, and profitability. On the other hand external auditors may utilize a balance sheet to secure a business is conceding through any reporting rules and regulations as a subject. It is also essential to recognize that a balance sheet displays data on a particular date.It is consistently based on past data through its essence. While investors and company holders may utilize a balance sheet to indicate the performance of the future, there is no guarantee of future results through past performance.

Equation of Balance sheet

Equation of balance sheet will often recognized according to the given equation:- Asset=Laiblities + owners equity.

This equation is the most common balance sheet formula; it is the only collection method. Here is the data you may encounter:-

Owners equity = Assets-Laiblities

Liabilities = Assets -owners’ equity

A balance sheet should always be a balance. Assets should always equal liabilities plus owners’ equity. And owner’s equity should always equal assets minus liabilities. Liabilities should always equal purchases minus owner’s equity. The document was likely wrong if a balance sheet didn’t balance. Generally, errors expects to be incomplete or missing data, incorrectly entered transactions, errors in rates of currencies or inventor levels, amortization or miscalculated depreciation.

Categories of balance sheet in value

Here are the various value categories such as assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity.


Assets are anything that intrinsic held and owned through a company and its quantifiable value. It generally added as a positive (+) to the balance sheet.  There are various types of assets mentioned below

  • Cash:- It is a type of government debt hold by the company, and consider the most liquid asset.
  • Account receivable:- Money is paid to the business or company through its customers, factoring in any anticipation of money unlikely to be paid.
  • Inventory:­ It is goods that are open for sale, Generally valued at their market cost, which is mostly lower.
  • Fixed assets:- Include land and machine 
  • Intangible assets:- A assets which are non-tangible such as intellectual property
  • Long term securities:- Securities not easily dissolve or liquidate
  • Marketing securities:- It is a debt and equity that can trade on a liquid market.


There are various types of Liabilities mentioned below.

Long-term debt is a type of bond or interest that the company pays to the other lenders within a year or after.

Tax payable:- Taxes which pay by the company but not immediately

Pension funds:- collections of savings earned during someone’s working life.

Shareholder Equity 

Shareholder equity also name as owner’s equity. It shows the sum of money that will return to the company’s shareholders after any liabilities are accounted for and all the company assets are paid off.

There are various types of shareholder equity given below.

Shared:-Shares are the company capital divided and distributed between the owners equally, and the profit is being earned, which is equally allocated between them.

Retained earnings:- It is a type of earnings that reinvest later in the company or use to pay its current debt fully.

Treasury shares:- These shares purchased back by the company and reduce the number of outstanding shares on the available market.

Final words

The best method to analyze a balance sheet is to compare it with previous records, examining which method the figures have been switching over time. You can also analyze the balance sheets of other same companies. With the help of a balance sheet, you can check several useful ratios like debt and equity ratios. This ratio estimates a company’s financial support. You divide the liabilities of a company by company equity to find it.

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